Pregnancy Signs And Symptoms

Pregnancy Signs And Symptoms

Pregnancy Signs And Symptoms:

Outline:

1. Signs of pregnancy.
2. Symptoms of I Trimester.
3. Symptoms of II Trimester.
4. Symptoms of III Trimester.
5. Abnormal symptoms.

Signs:

Signs are those which are seen by physicians.

Symptoms:

They are observed and felt by the patient.

Signs of pregnancy:

There are some associated symptoms in case of pregnancy. Initial signs typically appear within first few weeks of conception. Although not all are universally present, nor all of them are diagnostic by themselves. But they are useful for presumptive diagnosis of pregnancy and confirmed along with lab diagnosis.

Initial signs:

  1. A rise in human chorionic gonadotrophic hormone which released from the cells of the placenta, this average growth is very helpful for diagnosis of pregnancy. Within 15 days are so this hormone appears in blood and later in urine too.
  2. Implantation bleeding was seen as spotting within III weeks of conception when the embryo is getting implanted.
  3. Raised basal body temperature for the day of ovulation.
  4. Chadwick sign darkening of cervix & vagina.
  5. G models sign--- softening of the vaginal portion of the cervix.

Later signs:

  1. Linea nigra---darkening of skin as vertical patterns in the abdomen during the middle of pregnancy due to the hormonal changes.
  2. The sharply increasing size of the stomach, which is the obvious indication if gestation.

Symptoms:

Symptoms, which appear during pregnancy vary widely, and it varies from person to person. Not all the symptoms appear in a person.

I Trimester:

During this stage, there is rapid cell division taking place in the embryo, and it gets implanted in the uterus. During this juncture, all the major organs were formed.

The first month of pregnancy almost Passover without any symptoms. From the beginning of the second month, women start getting symptoms usually. Some of the typical common symptoms are:

  1. The breast feeling tender, soft & sore due to hormonal changes inducing the mammary glands for the production of milk. There will be a gradual increase of the breast from here.
  2. Morning sickness comprises of vomiting sensation on the sight of food due to rising in the hormonal levels in the morning. But pregnant women despite this feeling should try taking essential nutrients.
  3. Increased craving for some strange food like pickles, raw mango, etc..
  4. Constipation and indigestion due to increased hormonal flow slowing down the bowel movements and absorption of nutrients.Hence this should be compensated with the large intake of water and fruits. Multivitamin supplements should be continued to overcome this malabsorption.
  5. Frequent urination---due to extra fluids to be filtered by the kidney.
  6. Fatigue, dizziness, headache---due to raised progesterone (hormonal effects) compounded by increased blood volume, which leads to falling in blood pressure and fall in blood sugar hence leading to insufficient blood supply to the brain. This is also due to increasing metabolic needs of pregnancy.
  7. Heightened sensation to aromas.
  8. Mild back pain.
  9. Mood swings, dysphoric effects, depressed mindset due to the influence of progesterone on the mood regulatory part of a brain.

One should be very careful at this stage as there are a lot of chances for miscarriages and hence if a physician should immediately attend any abnormal symptoms like severe pain in the abdomen and heavy blood flow.

II Trimester:

In this stage, there is morphological differentiation and development of the fetus. There will be a maturation of the organs.

Many of the symptoms seen in the I Trimester continue with increased severity.

Some of them are as follows:

  1. Face look blushed due to increased blood flow and hormonal effects.
  2. Fatigue, dizziness continues due to due to raised progesterone (hormonal effects). And due to the greater demand from the growing fetus.
  3. Increased urinating frequency due to the growing fetus compressing on the bladder and due to the increased fluid secretion during pregnancy.
  4. Constipation and indigestion, due to increased hormonal flow slowing down the bowel movements and due to the compression of a stomach and other organs by the growing fetus. Hence there will always be a feeling of abdominal heaviness and indigestion. But antacid should not be taken without advice as they contain aluminum which may affect the fetus.
  5. The slow increase in a size of the abdomen as the fetus is growing and the organs start to develop.
  6. Symptoms of morning sickness gradually reduce as pregnancy progresses.
  7. Increased back pain, due to weight gain, posture /torso thrown out of alignment and the center of gravity shifts leading to severe back pain. The other reason for this is a hormonal effect on the joints and ligaments to loosen it for easing pregnancy.
  8. Bloating and weight gain, due to the growing fetus. There will be the increase in weight upto12-16 kgs.

III Trimester:

There is a full growth of the fetus in this period. All the organs start maturing in this stage. Hence there is the final weight gain here.

  1. Fatigue, dizziness continues.
  2. Breast size increases.
  3. Constipation and indigestion.
  4. Increased urinating frequency.
  5. Full weight gain.
  6. The growth of abdomen reaches its maximum.
  7. Severe back pain.
  8. And finally uterus contractions during the time of pregnancy.
  9. Edema due to the compression of inferior vena cava and pelvic veins and pooling of blood in the lower parts of the body.
  10. Dehydration due to expanded intravascular space.

Abnormal signs and symptoms:

  1. Uncontrolled increase in weight more than normal---this should be correctly diagnosed and reduced as it may interfere with the general health of the mother and with the delivery.
  2. Increased blood sugar level-- When the body is not able making all the insulin it needs during pregnancy, there is a build up of high levels of glucose in the blood, and is termed Gestational Diabetes.
  3. Increased blood pressure, due to hormonal effects is any other reason leads to reduced blood supply to the brain and may cause pre-eclampsia during delivery.
  4. Seizures.
  5. Heavy vaginal bleeding, is abnormal during pregnancy and may be due to abortion.
  6. Severe abdominal pain---should be attended immediately may be attributable to abortion.

Abnormal pelvic girdle pain due to overstretching of ligaments during pregnancy. This may cause severe abnormal pain and sometimes remain so for the rest of life

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